Monthly Student Spotlight: Membership Mondays
january 2022: HOoman Gholamzadeh
It's the first Monday of 2022! And what better way to start the year, than to highlight another student from the NACE SOSS for #SOSSMembershipMonday, featuring Hooman Gholamzadeh from Queen's University!
Project title: The role of Dealloying as a Precursor to Stress Corrosion SCC of Ni-Fe-Cr Alloys in Caustic Environments
Refurbishment and life extension of the currently operating nuclear power plants necessitate an understanding of all possible degradation mechanisms of the structural materials. Despite their resistance to general and localized corrosion, Fe- and Ni-Based alloys have been shown to suffer from environmentally assisted cracking. Alloy 800 CANDU steam generator tubing material, for instance, has shown very good in-service performance for decades. However, laboratory experiments have shown susceptibility of this material to dealloying and SCC in hot caustic environments where a nanoporous dealloyed layer acts as a precursor to SCC by a proposed film-induced cleavage mechanism. My research focuses on dealloying and SCC of Alloy 800 in boiling caustic environments. I study the SCC mechanism of Alloy 800 using electrochemistry techniques, micro and macro mechanical tests, and different characterization techniques. Our results indicate a correlation between dealloying/porosity formation and cracking of Alloy 800. The nano-scale analysis confirms cracking by cleavage mechanism.
Figure: The figure shows a STEM image of cracks initiating from a nanoporous dealloyed surface film after exposure of Alloy 800 U-Bend to boiling caustic solution along with EELS elemental maps of the surface film.
November 2021: Claire TUlly
It's the first of the month and that means it is time for a new student highlight! Check out what Claire Tully is studying at Western University!
Project Title: Investigating Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Copper in Compacted Bentonite Clay
Canada’s plan for the safe disposal of nuclear waste relies on long-term storage of the used fuel in an engineered multi-barrier system, contained within a deep geological repository. Within this system’s design, the used fuel is stored in copper-coated steel containers and placed 500 m below the surface in compacted bentonite clay. Within the clay, microbial activity may result in microbially influenced corrosion of the copper canister. My research focuses on the mitigation of the microbially influenced corrosion by controlling the compaction density of the bentonite clay surrounding the copper material.
Some of our experiments are placed 500 meters below ground in boreholes located in Ignace, Ontario! The exposure of canister material, compacted in bentonite clay, to Canadian groundwater will illustrate how the canister material will fare in repository conditions.
Image: NWMO Borehole drilling in Ignace, Ontario
July 2021: Jamie jewer
The NACE SOSS is very excited to highlight our very first Membership Monday! On the first Monday of the month, we will highlight a student in our section who is doing amazing research. Each month will feature a student from a different university.
For our first #SOSSMembershipMonday, check out what Jaime Jewer is getting up to at McMaster University!
Project Title: The Effect of Direct Hot Press Forming on the Electrochemical Properties of Next Generation Zn-Coated Press Hardenable Steels
Automotive parts are often formed by a process called hot press forming. In this process, the galvanized steel is heated to 900°C, and then stamped with water cooled dies. This can damage the galvanized coating and impact its ability to provide cathodic corrosion resistance to the part. In my research, I look at the coating after hot stamping and use electrochemistry to determine if corrosion resistance is provided on galvanized prototype grades of steel after hot press forming.
Pictured here are the U-shape galvanized part after hot press forming and a cross-sectional image of the coating at the corner of the part. Note all the cracks in the coating.
October 2021: Isabella McDonald
Its time again for our #SOSSMembershipMonday! This month, we are featuring Isabella McDonald from McMaster University!
Project Title: Corrosion Performance of High Temperature Alloys in Molten Salt Mixtures for Next Generation Energy Systems
Molten chloride salts have been proposed to be used as the primary coolant in molten salt reactors, and as the heat transfer fluid in concentrated solar power plants in next generation energy system design. The corrosive properties of molten chloride salts make it challenging to find appropriate structural materials for plant/system realization.
In my research, I am investigating two corrosion mitigation methods to determine the relative corrosion performance of high temperature alloys in molten chloride salt mixtures: (1) chemical purification of salt mixture using a Mg sacrificial anode and (2) developing a protective oxide layer on the surface of alloys during pre-oxidation treatment. These corrosion inhibitors are studied in combination with each other to determine the relative corrosion performance of three high temperature alloys (a silica former, an alumina former, and a chromia former).
September 2021: Baian Almusned
Our NACE SOSS #SOSSMembershipMonday is here again after a Labour Day Holiday Monday! This month, we are featuring Baian Almusned from Western University!
Project Title: Electrodialysis Study of Metal Cations
Heavy metal ion capture has a number of applications including wastewater treatment, leach mining, and radioactive metal capture in the event of a spill. Research on heavy metal ion capture is ongoing with the objective of establishing the most efficient and selective capture method.
For my research, electrodialysis, which is defined as the movement of charged species through an ion-exchange membrane upon the application of an electric field, is investigated for its capabilities to capture and remove metal ion contaminants from water. The ion exchange membrane installed in the electrodialysis unit affects the removal efficiency of the process. Due to a lack of available ion-selective membranes, a new class of phosphorus-based polymers, known as CapturePhos, were developed at Western University. CapturePhos will be tested in order to characterize their electrochemical behaviour as electrodialysis membranes. A four-compartment electrochemical cell is employed for the electrochemical experiments (attached figure). Surface analytical techniques such as infrared (IR) spectroscopy are utilized to examine the membrane pre- and post-experimentations. Moreover, analytical techniques such as ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are employed to analyze the metal ion concentration in solutions. This research will advance wastewater treatment methods as well as set the foundation for the capture of radioactive contaminants.
August 2021: Adil Shaik
It's finally #SOSSMembershipMonday again! This month we are featuring Adil Shaik from Queen's University!
Project Title: The nanoscale microstructure and mechanics of the oxide formed on Zr-2.5Nb alloy exposed to high-temperature water
Nuclear energy is one of the most technology-ready, low-carbon energy sources, alongside hydropower. In 2020, Nuclear power supplied ~2600 terawatt-hours of electricity, accounting to 10% of the world’s electricity production. To meet the increasing demand of electricity with the growing population, nuclear power has the potential to make a substantial impact, while still lowering greenhouse gas emissions.
According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) there were 443 operating nuclear power plants in the world, with an additional 54 under construction, with a total capacity of 57441 MW(e). In all these reactor designs Zirconium (Zr) alloys are being used as for in-core components or as cladding material for nuclear fuel. The outer surface of fuel rods/cladding are exposed to 280 to 320 °C high temperature water, resulting in oxidation of the Zr alloy. In my research, I use transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize the nanoscale defects in the oxide/metal due to radiation and understand the degradation mechanism in these alloys.
Figure: TEM Fresnel image at metal-oxide interface (Δf = ±650 nm) showing the distribution of nano-porosity in white contrast and cracks, highlighted with red color arrows.
December 2021: Des Williams
IIt's the last month of this year! December is here, and so is another #SOSSMembershipMonday! Check out what Des Williams at UofT is doing!
Project Title: Investigating Corrosion in Nuclear Steam Generator Materials
As the world transitions away from carbon-based forms of energy, nuclear power is re-emerging as an excellent candidate to meet baseline energy requirements. However, the aggressive chemistries that occur in these systems can induce localized material failure. This necessitates a thorough examination of nuclear materials in industry-relevant chemistries, such that the limitations of these materials may be well understood.
My research focuses on the mechanisms of corrosion of nuclear steam generator materials in secondary side chemistries. This work includes materials processing, electrochemical experimentation, and advanced nano-scale characterization. I hope to contribute to the development of nuclear energy through research of nuclear materials, and through teaching.